Marine visual imaging has become a major assessment tool in the science, policy and public understanding of our seas and oceans. The technology to acquire and process this imagery has significantly evolved in recent years through the development of new camera platforms, camera types, lighting systems and analytical software. These advances have led to new challenges in imaging, including storage and management of ‘Big Data’, enhancement of digital photos, and the extraction of biological and ecological data. The need to address these challenges, within and beyond the scientific community, is set to substantially increase in the near future, as imaging is increasingly used in the designation and evaluation of marine conservation areas, and for the assessment of environmental baselines and impact monitoring of various marine industries. We review the state of the theory, techniques and technologies associated with each of the steps of marine imaging for observation and research, and to provide an outlook on the future from the perspective of current active science and engineering developers and users.

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