This project will describe patterns in Australian marine biodiversity at continental, regional and local scales using a variety of taxonomic and recent genetic approaches. Historical changes in sea level, geomorphology, palaeocurrents and climate will be used to explain the origins of these patterns in biodiversity and be used to infer how contemporary biodiversity may respond to current environmental change. The smallest scale studied in this Program is the scale of 10s of kilometres (seamount connectivity), and this is associated with modelling deepwater currents to establish potential connectivity between deep sea features. The largest scale is continental (and SW Pacific scale). This project will provide input and understanding to describing and categorising Australia’s biodiversity – a crucial first step in its management.