The Action Plan for Australian Sharks and Rays 2021 is the first action plan for Australia’s chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, rays, and chimaeras). This book presents a comprehensive and consistent review of the extinction risk of all 328 species occurring in Australian waters, including Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic waters. It provides a benchmark from which changes in population and extinction risk can be measured, and to help guide management for their conservation. This Action Plan also serves to raise the profile of the diversity and conservation needs of Australia’s sharks, rays, and chimaeras. The majority of the fauna is secure, although roughly one in eight species is threatened with extinction. The Action Plan presents specific actions required to address vast knowledge gaps, and outlines conservation objectives for each species. It will help the Commonwealth and the states and territories prioritise species for conservation listing, research, and management. This book is a call to action to secure all of Australia’s sharks, rays, and chimaeras.