Sounding out a world of hidden folds and valleys beneath the waves

World map from the HMS Challenger voyage
Serious deep-sea exploration began in the 19th Century when the HMS Challenger expedition (1872–1876) set out from Portsmouth, UK, on a three-and-a half-year journey around the globe that included south-eastern Australia. Challenger carried 144 miles of hemp rope for depth sounding and 12.5 miles of piano wire for seabed sampling.
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